The Lab Notebook

Give Your Research 100% With a S100 Antibody

Posted by Deane Buckley on Jul 7, 2015 10:00:00 AM

 

Figure: Schematic representation of S100 proteins in the MAP kinase and NF-kappaB pathways.

S100 proteins are a family of proteins known for their role in a variety of cellular pathways and diseases. This blog post will catch you up on the latest research on these important proteins.

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Topics: Immunology, Apoptosis, Cancer

Be positive! 5 ways to confirm your MHC tetramer is binding

Posted by Cheryl A. Guyre, Ph.D. on Apr 17, 2015 4:35:17 PM

In the previous Tetramer Tips blog, I suggested ways for you to be a negative Control Freak. Now it’s time to think positive! A positive control for a tetramer is a sample that contains cells expressing the specific T cell receptor of interest, i.e. has the exact specificity of the tetramer. Okay, brace yourselves; I’m going to be frank here.  Having a positive control for tetramer experiments is often a quest for the Holy Grail. In many (most, in fact) cases, you will not have access to a positive control, unless one of your experimental samples happens to show a positive result. In an experiment where no positive events are seen and no positive control was used, you cannot necessarily conclude that the donor/patient/mouse is negative for that T cell specificity, because, heck, maybe you got distracted while pipetting and forgot to add the tetramer to your staining cocktail!  A tetramer experiment with no positive control and no positives in the experimentals is, therefore, uninterpretable. This is the hard truth we must face.

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Topics: Tetramer, Immunology

Tetramer Tips for Success: How to be a (Negative) Control Freak

Posted by Cheryl A. Guyre, Ph.D. on Mar 20, 2015 10:48:00 AM

While being a Control Freak may not be the best choice for living in spiritual harmony, it is a downright asset in flow cytometry research!  Controls not only help you set up an experiment to get a clear or “true” answer, they can also help you troubleshoot what may have gone wrong when your data just doesn’t look quite right, so that your next attempt will turn out better.  In flow cytometry, controls are critical to help determine “real” events from artifacts.  So, what should you use as controls in tetramer experiments?

 

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Topics: Tetramer, Immunology

The Significance of IL-18 in the Inflammatory Response

Posted by Deane Buckley on Mar 9, 2015 10:30:48 AM

Inflammation is regulated by small glycoproteins called cytokines. Cytokines are cell signaling proteins in the immune response pathway1. Il-18 is a cytokine that primarily facilitates Th1-type immunoreactions by acting on T cells.

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Topics: Immunology, IL-18, Immune Response, Allergy

Why bother knowing if you are detecting Pro-IL18 or active IL-18?

Posted by Bindi M. Doshi, PhD on Mar 2, 2015 9:48:00 AM

il-18-01Antibodies are wonderful.  They can act as little detectives to help you determine if the protein you’re interested in is involved in a certain process or help characterize the function.  But what if your favorite protein has two forms?  Is your antibody sophisticated enough to be able to detect one form over the other?  Does this knowledge help you?  How?  IL-18 is one such protein that has two forms.  It is present when it is inactive and present when it is active.  So what is known about IL-18 and its function and the two forms it can exist in?

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Topics: Immunology, IL-18, Immune Response, Allergy