The goal of cancer immune checkpoint therapies is to cure tumor-specific T cells from dysfunction which is caused by elements from tumor deposits. In this blog, we briefly describe the process of T cell exhaustion and how it can be harnessed for immuno-oncology drug discovery and more specifically to screen immune checkpoint drug candidates. First, the current function-based characterization methods for immunomodulatory drug candidates will be summarized. We have selected three methods which mimic prerequisite parameters of early T cell exhaustion (TEX). Next, we briefly describe an improved recall antigen-based potency assay as detailed elsewhere. Lastly, we describe an in vitro reversible early TEX-like model, which may be tailored with cancer-induced T cell suppression agents. Here it should be noted that cancer induced T cell dysfunction is also referred to as TEX, covering a broad spectrum of different molecular T cell pathologies. The term “T cell exhaustion” in this review mainly refers to an early stage of this process. We have devised an in vitro model that recapitulates components of tumor deposits responsible for inducing TEX.
Exosomes are cell-derived vesicles originating from multi-vesicular bodies and found in biological fluids such as blood, saliva, urine, and breast milk. Sizes of these extracellular vesicles (EVs) range between 30-100 nm. Due to their capacity to transfer proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, exosomes can influence various physiological and pathological functions (Yañez-Mo et al., 2015).
Exosomes play a key role in cell-cell communication and circulate in bloodstream, and therefore, are implicated as a disease biomarker for cancer and immune system disorders. However, there is limited information regarding efficient methods for obtaining pure exosomes. MBL offers a unique exosome purification kit that can help researchers purify exosomes from their sample.
Figure: Schematic representation of S100 proteins in the MAP kinase and NF-kappaB pathways.
S100 proteins are a family of proteins known for their role in a variety of cellular pathways and diseases. This blog post will catch you up on the latest research on these important proteins.
Given the prominent role of Fas in many important cell functions (7 Facts to Catch You Up to Speed on Fas), Fas has been implicated in a variety of disease states such as cancer. Here are some major findings from recent research about the role of Fas in cancer: