LC3, a mammalian homologue of yeast ATG8, is a soluble protein that is distributed ubiquitously in mammalian tissues and cultured cells. LC3 has been studied most extensively and is frequently used as an autophagy marker in mammals. Newly translated LC3 (proLC3) is immediately processed at the C-terminus in order to form LC3-I. During autophagy, autophagosomes engulf cytoplasmic components, including cytosolic proteins and organelles. Concomitantly, a cytosolic form of LC3 (LC3-I) is conjugated to phosphatidylethanolamine to form LC3-phosphatidylethanolamine conjugate (LC3-II), which is recruited to autophagosomal membranes.
Immuno-oncology is a growing field in which different strategies such as immune modulators, vaccines and adoptive cell therapies are applied for new immunotherapies. Cancer vaccine immunogenicity and stability are two important parameters in vaccine development. In addition, vaccine immunogenicity implies accurate enumeration of antigen specific T-cells. MHC tetramers can help monitor peptide vaccine immunogenicity and stability.
Exosomes are cell-derived vesicles originating from multi-vesicular bodies and found in biological fluids such as blood, saliva, urine, and breast milk. Sizes of these extracellular vesicles (EVs) range between 30-100 nm. Due to their capacity to transfer proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, exosomes can influence various physiological and pathological functions (Yañez-Mo et al., 2015).
Exosomes play a key role in cell-cell communication and circulate in bloodstream, and therefore, are implicated as a disease biomarker for cancer and immune system disorders. However, there is limited information regarding efficient methods for obtaining pure exosomes. MBL offers a unique exosome purification kit that can help researchers purify exosomes from their sample.